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The shock tasl by the Indian “peaceful nuclear explosion” in May raised questions about the safeguarding of sensitive nuclear technology. The Nuclear Suppliers Group started out, and remains, an essentially voluntary international organization. State Department release from P-reels, B: While full-scope had wide support in the group, both the French and the West Germans remained opposed. The French had not given an answer and bilateral discussions would take place to go over the issues.
George Vest to Mr. Memorandum from Thomas O. On 17 Octoberthe State Department took the first step to bringing the Soviets in by sending a telegram about the project to the embassy in Moscow.
Consulate, Jerusalem, “Action Memorandum: According to the report on the Nov. While anaywsa French were supportive of the moratorium proposal, the West Germans were uncomfortable with it, not least because of the implications for their deal with Brazil.
Most old and new members were receptive when Washington lobbied them to support a “long term and stable regime of restraint” on the export of sensitive enrichment and reprocessing technology.
Embassy London et al. On 18 April, Kissinger met with the French ambassador and provided the necessary assurances, which he wrote up in a letter to Sauvagnargues not long before the suppliers met in London on 25 April.
The latter included, for example, gas centrifuge technology and “know-how” needed to operate a gas centrifuge plant. At the November meeting, the suppliers completed negotiations on guidelines. It was around 3: The Zangger Committee, however, did not include technology in its trigger list. Declassification release from AAD; C: The British tried to work out a compromise on full-scope safeguards, but that proved acceptable to none; the best that could be achieved was French agreement to future consideration of full-scope.
But Kissinger evidently had no answer. Kissinger Staff Meetings,box 4. Among other measures, Kissinger endorsed consultations with suppliers to establish “common principles regarding the supply of sensitive enrichment technology or equipment” and encouraging multinational frameworks for “enrichment, fuel fabrication, and reprocessing facilities. Nevertheless, from the U.
Perhaps, Kissinger concluded that this was one issue that resisted his strong interest in using memoirs and other writings to justify his record of diplomacy. He and President Richard Nixon had been dismissive of the NPT, but Kissinger changed course during and that would have to be explained.
Another issue was whether multinational auspices for reprocessing anayawa enrichment plants should be mandatory or a snayasa of discretion by a supplier country.
The Soviet Union was not yet a major nuclear exporter, but they had potential and as a major co-sponsor of the NPT had followed nonproliferation norms in their nuclear dealings.
Convincing France to participate in the suppliers group was a central problem; the French had refused to sign the NPT but were becoming more concerned about the spread of nuclear capabilities. Corresponding French government records on these developments are unavailable.
Arguing that full-scope safeguards was “alien to [their] philosophy,” the French suggested that a “traditional interpretation of the contamination principle i. Power, Politics, and Policies New York: By mid-Octoberthe French were giving signals that they were open to dialogue on export controls but the advisers believed that an approach to Paris was becoming more urgent in light of recent intelligence that Paris was signing contracts on nuclear export deals, probably a reference to Pakistan and South Korea.
Tsla French rejected the comprehensive nuclear safeguards that Washington favored because they “did not want to be accused of acting with nuclear suppliers to gang up on non-NPT [Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty] parties and even some NPT countries. Consultations on Nuclear Suppliers Meeting,” 15 September If the French did not participate, neither would the West Germans.
It also adopted full-scope safeguards, but years later granted Tazla an exception that haunts the nonproliferation regime. This summary, excerpted from document 13D, may have been prepared for Secretary Kissinger to give him background and the state-of-play on the discussions with the French on their participation in the suppliers group project. Several miles from the first contact, the Tesla slowed to a full stop just north of the offramp at Embarcadero Road. Nevertheless, init stopped meeting because of internal differences over the next steps, such as the role of full-scope safeguards.
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Also encouraging interest in a close look at nuclear export policy were negotiations, pre-dating the Indian test, over nuclear cup sales to Israel, Egypt, and Iran. For more information contact: Near the end of a discussion of non-proliferation policy with British Foreign Secretary James Callaghan [pages ], Kissinger realized he needed to tackle the problem of nuclear exports and tasal his aide, Helmut Sonnenfeldt, to arrange a staff meeting.
Drawing on the declassified record, the editor has filled in many of the country names deleted by State Department reviewers from document A. In this context, the NSG began meeting again and expanded its membership further. Another contested issue was a U. With the Carter administration in power innuclear nonproliferation policy had greater precedence than under Ford and, reversing the approach that Kissinger had taken, U.
An important proposal was for “high level political approaches to key exporting countries to enlist their support for safeguarding transfers of nuclear materials. Memorandum from Williams H. With his focus on U.